An investigation reveals many apps were used to dupe brands; revelation, they say, shows just how deeply fraud is embedded in the digital advertising ecosystem”. Why are we surprised? When was the last time you clicked an ad? Am trained by now to ignore all ads. I do not think any humans click an ad intentionally.

In addition, the whole online ad business is built on duping users to click on ads and force the brands to pay for these useless click-through. I won’t be surprised if the automated ad clicks are way more common.